Next summer, SoloMate Travel is visiting three cities in the province of Québec, where French is the official language. Of course, members of our single travel group do not need to speak French, as English is widely spoken throughout Québec and a SoloMate Travel Director is always available to help. However, it is often fun to try speaking a few words in a foreign language, and locals are truly appreciative.
Here are a few key words and phrases solo travelers might find handy during their singles travel trip to Montréal, Mont-Tremblant and Québec City:
Yes = Oui
No = Non
Hello, good morning, good day = Bonjour
Good night, good evening = Bonsoir
Please = S’il vous plaît
Thank you = Merci
You’re welcome = Bienvenue, de rien
How are you? = Comment ça va? (or simply Ça va?)
Where are the restrooms? = Où sont les toilettes?
Where is…? = Où est…?
I don’t understand. = Je ne comprends pas.
Do you speak English? = Parlez-vous l’anglais?
Taxi = Taxi
Subway = Métro (metro)
I really like traveling with SoloMate Travel. = J’aime beaucoup voyager avec SoloMate Travel.
Contact SoloMate Travel today, and experience the best Québec’s French culture has to offer, while taking-in some of the world’s top musical acts. Members of our solo travel group will be visiting the Montreal Jazz Festival, the Festival d’été de Québec and the Tremblant Blues Festival. Call 1‑855‑290‑7050 or visit www.solomatetravel.com.
Join SoloMate’s single travel trip to China for the experience of a lifetime. Walk on The Great Wall, where you can appreciate 2,000 years of historic significance, while admiring the panoramic views.
China’s most iconic attraction, actually a network of fortifications rather than a single structure, once stretched some 5,500 miles (8,850 km) from the Korean border to the west, into the Gobi desert to the east. Of that, 3,889 miles (6,259 km) were actual wall, while 223 miles (359 km) were trenches and 1,387 miles (2,232 km) were natural defensive barriers, like rivers or steep hills, incorporated into the system.
In c. 220 B.C., under Qin Shi Huang, sections of earlier fortifications were joined together to form a united defence system against invasions from the north. Construction continued up to the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644). By the time construction on most of the stone and brick Great Wall, with its turrets and watchtowers, was completed, the chang cheng had become the world’s largest human-made object.
In 1987, UNESCO designated the Great Wall of China a World Heritage Site. Then, in 2009, an additional 180 miles (290 km) of previously undetected portions of the wall, built during the Ming Dynasty, were discovered. Over time, these sections had been submerged by sandstorms, which moved across the arid region.
Though new sections of the wall have recently been uncovered, several sections of the structure have vanished during the past half century or so. Mao Zedong himself encouraged destruction of parts of the wall and reuse of its materials in the 1950s, and rural farmers still make use of the wall’s earth and stone for practical purposes.
Some 50 percent of the original ancient structure has already disappeared, and perhaps another 30 percent lies crumbling — even as Chinese and international organizations struggle to preserve what remains of this unique treasure.
Other purposes of the Great Wall have included border controls, allowing the imposition of duties on goods transported along the Silk Road, regulation or encouragement of trade and the control of immigration and emigration.
Call SoloMate Travel today to get more details on our incredibly fascinating single travel trip to China. You can always reach one of our Travel Experts at 1-855-290-7050. We also invite single and solo travelers to visit our website at www.solomatetravel.com, where you will find information on this and our many other exciting vacations for singles.
SoloMate is returning to Buenos Aires in November, and offers you eight reasons why you should join us:
The always fascinating Evita, a woman whose legend lives on
Buenos Aires celebrates the 60th anniversary of her passing this year. Many of her social programs still remain in place. Take-in the numerous attractions and exhibitions depicting her life, and experience her influence first-hand. Our hotel even overlooks the Cementerio de la Recoleta, her final resting place.
The markets, with or without money!
Brows around the stalls of antiques at the Sunday market in the historic San Telmo district. Vintage jewelry and clothing will make you look and feel like a local, should you be inclined to tango in the streets. There’s also the very popular Recoleta Market, a weekend fair right outside our hotel. No cash? No problem. Buenos Aires is home to many gratiferias or free fairs. Want to learn more about this wonderful initiative? Read our blog at http://solomatetravel.com/blog/.
Soccer and its many legends
Buenos Aires’ Boca Juniors is one of South America’s most famous clubs and watching a game at La Bombonera (Estadio Alberto J. Armando) is sure to be an absolutely unforgettable experience. Sixty-one thousand fans will cheer, waving flags, scarves and t-shirts. Join our Travel Director and other adventurous single travelers in this once-in-a-lifetime experience, and feel the electricity in the air.
Play a cowboy or cowgirl during a day at an estancia. Ride a horse, watch the gauchos expertly handle their mounts, or enjoy a peaceful buggy ride around the ranch. Later, feast on Argentine sirloin, or savor empanadas. Share a yerba mate, and learn the proper way to drink this herbal beverage. This is a day for single travelers on a solo adventure to Argentina to learn about rich traditions and have a good time.
Scent of a Tango
Slow, slow, quick, quick, slow. Sound simple enough? Well, it will be after your tango lesson with your single travel companions at La Confiteria Ideal. You will have an opportunity to attend any one of the city’s friendly and quaint milongas. The big Broadway-style shows will take your breath away. I’m sure I saw Al Pacino dancing a tango!
Malbec from Mendoza
Wine vintages that might not be available in North America fill the shelves at the many wine bars and shops throughout Buenos Aires. Perch yourself on a bar stool and mingle with locals who are a happy and proud gang. Our private wine tasting will guide you, while you sample some local tapas. Cheers!
A pleasant stroll
Meander through the uber chic streets of Palermo Soho, which abound with designer boutiques, inviting cafes and captivating galleries. Our hotel is centrally located, and close to parks, museums, and landmarks, offering the perfect photo opportunities. Rent a two-seat bike, and pedal through the Parque Tres de Febrero, with its exquisite rose gardens. The nearby botanical garden is a haven of tranquility, when you feel like you need a quiet moment.
Buenos Aires is a city of contrasting districts and each has its own flavor. SoloMate guarantees there will be one you’ll want to revisit.
Fall in love
With the Iguazu Falls that is! View the falls up close and feel the rumble as you spend a night in the National Park, with all the comforts of home. The Iguazu Falls are not just one big splash of water. They are actually made up of many falls flowing together. Our solo travelers will experience the falls both at sunset and sunrise, with ample time to hike, paddle or just enjoy the flora and fauna.
Visit our Trips page for more information on this fabulous single and solo vacation to Argentina. You can always reach one of our knowledgeable Travel Experts at 1-855-290-7050.
Last May, SoloMate travelers spent a memorable week discovering the finest Peru has to offer. Members of our single travel group were prepared for the pan pipes, lamas, Incan ruins, colorful textiles, and all the other icons Peru is famous for.
Not surprisingly, the friendly and charming people were the highlight of our solo travel adventure. Our guides and drivers made every effort to ensure that we had the time of our lives, and we most certainly did.
The exceptional quality of Peruvian cuisine was somewhat more unexpected though. Throughout the country, the food was delicious, healthy, plentiful and varied.
On day 1 of our Peruvian singles adventure, we chose to spoil ourselves with lunch at restaurant Huaca Pucllana, located within the ruins of the Huaca Pucllana, an archeological compound built between 200 and 700 A.D. by Lima’s early inhabitants. The adobe pyramid, digs and walls, illuminated at night, provided a breathtaking and very unique setting. Our surroundings were as impressive as the food on our plates. We savored masterfully prepared sea bass and trout, shrimp and an array of other succulent shellfish. Those carnivorous members of our singles travel group chose delicious Argentinian beef and a sampling of sweet meats. Of course, we just had to try Argentina’s national dish – you guessed it – guinea pig (cuy). This delicacy was presented in three different ways. Admittedly, some less daring members of our solo travel group abstained. Reviews were mixed. Guinea pigs are quite small, and therefore contain little meat. We found it to be worth trying, but OK at best.
This is also where we sampled our first Pico Sours, both traditional ones, and ones containing assorted combinations like mango and passion fruit. These were consumed with much enthusiasm.
The exquisite cuisine, impeccable service and unique surroundings definitely make this restaurant, in the upscale Miraflores neighborhood where we were staying, a must when traveling to Lima. (www.resthuacapucllana.com)
That evening, we ventured over to Plaza San Martin, a beautiful public square in the Barranco district, surrounded by magnificent buildings, restaurants and bars. We decided to dine at La 73 Paradero Gourmet, a hidden gem that had been recommended to me by a friend.
Having just returned from a fabulous singles trip to Sorrento, on Italy’s Amalfi Coast, I had few expectations from an Italian restaurant in Peru. Low-and-behold, the quality of the food at this small neighborhood eatery was sensational, and certainly comparable to any fine dining establishment in Italy. Despite playing charades to place our orders, both the experience and the food were splendid.
Among the skillfully prepared dishes ordered by members of our single travel group were thinly sliced, perfectly seasoned Carpaccio with Parmigiano shavings, homemade raviolis stuffed with wild mushrooms and herbs, and a host of other creative pasta dishes. We all agreed that this was one of our best meals in Lima.
Of course, while in Lima, our SoloMate travelers just had to experience Astrid Y Gaston, justifiably ranked 35th best restaurant in the world. The decor, polished service and finesse of the cuisine rivaled those at any Michelin-rated restaurant. The presentation and intricacies of the 9 course tasting menu make it worth the trip. Chef-owner Gaston Acurio, often billed the Jamie Oliver of South America, succeeds in combining simple, local ingredients, with unique elements like urchin, guinea pig and eel, offering a menu that reads like a literary masterpiece. (www.astridygaston.com)
When traveling though, SoloMate Travel Directors know that it’s not always about costly, world-renowned Michelin restaurants. A quick chiro at a street-stand or in a quaint café can be just as heavenly. Around the corner from our hotel, the Casa Andina, we savored chiros with a light chocolate filling or with sinfully delicious dulche con leche.
Peru lived up to its reputation as a culinary destination in every sense of the word, as it offered a vast selection of unique fruits, vegetables and grains. The fish, seafood, meats and poultry were always perfectly prepared, whether we were at quaint village cafés or at chic urban eateries.
Join SoloMate Travel on its next singles adventure, and be sure to bring your appetite and a smile. Check out our Trips page and contact us any time at 1.855.290.7050.
SoloMate Travel is so excited to be heading to Ireland in September, and we want to make sure our SoloMate travelers fit right in. Here are some pointers:
What to drink
Guinness: a thick, creamy stout
Our single travel group will, of course, tour the Guinness Storehouse.
Harp: a well-known Irish lager, often on tap
Smithwick’s: a lighter red ale – pronounced “Smit-licks” or “Smiddicks”
Irish whiskey: give it a try or wait until our group of single travelers stops at the Kilbeggan Distillery on the way to Galway.
How to order
Pint or glass?
A glass is half a pint. At the Lisdoonvarna Matchmaking Festival, SoloMate travelers will be able to share a glass or a pint with other singles from all over the world.
Where to sit
It’s best to sit at the bar to meet the locals.
How to tip
Members of our singles group can tip the bartender by buying him or her a drink.
Here’s our favorite toast – which can be used during any one of our exciting singles trips anywhere in the world:
For every wound, a balm.
For every sorrow, a cheer.
For every storm, a calm.
For every thirst, a beer.
Where to go
It’s a tossup between Brazen Head and Grace Neill’s for the oldest pub in Ireland, depending who you talk too.
Temple Bar is one of Dublin’s liveliest and most diverse quarters. It just happens to be where our single travel group will enjoy a fun welcome dinner.
When our group of solo travelers returns to Dublin, after an exciting trip to Lisdoonvarna and Galway, we will drop by Sean’s Bar, in Athlone, another pub claiming to be the oldest in the country.
There is sure to be lots of “craic” (pronounced “crack”, and meaning “good times”) in store for those who choose SoloMate’s singles trip to Ireland this fall.
Please call us anytime toll free at 1‑855‑290‑7050, or visit our Trips page at www.solomatetravel.com. Our Travel Experts are always ready to assist you.
In November, SoloMate Travel will be returning to Argentina, and our singles trip will include a wine tasting. Our singles travel group will discover reds and whites from the Mendoza region, under the careful guidance of an experienced sommelier, at a fine Buenos Aires wine bar.
SoloMate Travel also offers its solo travelers an opportunity to spend four extra days sampling wines in the Mendoza region itself, located in the foothills of the Andes, on the western border of Argentina.
This region, which produces approximately 70% of all Argentinian wines, experiences four distinct seasons, with no extremes in temperature. Because of its warm and dry harvest period, grapes can be picked solely based on ripeness, rather than on Mother Nature’s whims. Moreover, the numerous rivers that flow from the Andes, and across Mendoza, provide area vineyards with natural irrigation. The region’s unique desert climate, with 300 days of sunshine a year, minimizes vintage variations, and ensures consistent quality from one year to the next. These ideal conditions give wine makers increased control over the types of wines they can produce.
Among the large variety of grapes successfully grown in Mendoza are Cabernet Sauvignon, Malbec, Syrah and Tempranillo for red wines, and Chardonnay, Semillon, Torrontes and Viognier for white.
Join SoloMate Travel on this fabulous singles adventure to Argentina, and treat yourself to an extra four unforgettable days in beautiful Mendoza. Call now to enquire about your singles vacation to Argentina, or check out our Trips Page for other solo adventures. You can reach us anytime at 1-855-290-7050 (toll free).
In November 2012, SoloMate will be returning to Argentina, offering its guests an unforgettable singles vacation to Buenos Aires, the Paris of South America.
Few women have left an indelible mark on a city, and an entire country, in the way María Eva Duarte de Perón, affectionately known as Evita, has on Buenos Aires, and on Argentina as a whole. The more remarkable fact is that she actually only lived in the capital for less than 20 years, before dying of cancer in 1952, at age 33.
Undeniably one of the most controversial and influential women in the Western world, this First Lady, whose husband, Juan Perón, was president from 1946 to 1955, and again in 1973-74, was to some a saintlike defender of the poor and downtrodden, and to others, an irresponsible spender out for personal glory. Either way, her presence continues to be felt throughout Buenos Aires, and beyond.
This year in Buenos Aires, ceremonies, political speeches and a candlelight march will occur on July 26, the 60th anniversary of her death.
Other institutions, including the Museo Evita, will mark the occasion with special exhibitions and events throughout the year.
But you don’t have to march or attend speeches to understand the bond between this city and Evita. The physical contributions she left behind throughout Argentina — a beach resort for the working class, a children’s amusement park, a shelter for unwed mothers — now mingle with museums, countless statues and extravagant monuments built in her honor. The latest: two enormous steel sculptures of her likeness soldered to opposite sides of the soaring Health Ministry Building.
“There were no other women like her, especially other first ladies,” said Gabriel Miremont, the curator of the Museo Evita. “Mamie, Eleanor, even Jackie O. do not bring tourists to Washington as Evita does for Buenos Aires.”
Here are a few points of interest for single travelers who want to acquire a true appreciation of the woman who made such an important contribution to those less fortunate.
THE CASA ROSADA, also known as the Pink House
This is the Presidential Palace, home to the balcony that Evita often used to address throngs of Peronists — known as the shirtless ones, because many were poor laborers — gathered in the Plaza de Mayo and up Avenida de Mayo. It became iconic as the setting for “Don’t Cry for Me Argentina”, the signature song of the musical “Evita.” Free weekend tours of the palace allow visitors to peer from the balcony themselves. The Museo del Bicentenario, sometimes called the Presidential Museum, opened in 2011 behind the Casa Rosada. It contains objects related to the Peróns, such as presidential regalia, clothing and campaign posters.
Under Evita’s direction, the Argentine state bought this mansion in the Tony Palermo neighborhood in 1947 and turned it into a shelter for single mothers. After Juan Perón was deposed in 1955, the building remained in government hands as an office for the disabled. In 2002, the 50th anniversary of Evita’s death, the building reopened as a museum showcasing her lavish wardrobe, as well as items from the Eva Perón Historical Foundation, including some of her early films. The foundation behind the museum is run by her grandniece, Cristina Alvarez Rodriguez. Its store sells Evita-related art and books. This year exhibitions will highlight the museum’s own 10th anniversary as well as the 60th anniversary of Evita’s death.
DUARTE FAMILY TOMB
After 24 years of being shuttled about Argentina and even being buried in Italy for a few years, Evita’s body came to rest in 1976 in this simple black tomb belonging to the family of her father, Juan Duarte. Her admirers place flowers and notes at the tomb nearly every day, and the crowds grow to the thousands on July 26, the anniversary of her death. On Oct. 17, the date Juan Perón came to power, the arrangements — many from political leaders and unions — grow in size and number.
CONFEDERACIÓN GENERAL DEL TRABAJO
The General Confederation of Labor is a union office building constructed by the Peróns in the late 1940s. Tourists will recognize it by the portrait of Evita on its central tower, lighted by an eternal flame. Her body was embalmed in this building and it lay here until 1955, when a military coup forced Juan Perón from power. (The body was brought back to Argentina in 1974 after a multi-country journey involving Spain and Italy.)
MINISTRY OF HEALTH BUILDING
One of Buenos Aires’s tallest structures, the Ministry of Health was built by the Peróns and dominates Avenida Nueve de Julio. Because it was too large to demolish during the 1960s expansion of the avenue, a process that made it the world’s widest boulevard, the road simply goes around it. A stage at the base of this building was the site of a 1951 rally at which the crowd, estimated at two million people, called for Evita to announce her candidacy for vice president. (She decided against it.) Today, the building is home to the city’s newest Evita monument: two 10-story images of Evita’s face on the central tower, made of steel. The work on the south facade was unveiled on July 26, 2011, the 59th anniversary of her death, by President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, a former first lady herself who has drawn comparisons with Eva Perón. A defiant Evita on the northern facade harangues the city’s wealthy oligarchs, while on the south facade, facing a poor area, she is smiling.
EVITA MONUMENT AND THE NATIONAL LIBRARY
There was no official monument to Evita until 1999, when this bronze statue, reminiscent of a 1960s church sculpture, was unveiled. It’s on a hillside below the National Library, which sits at the site of the former presidential residence, where Evita died. (The residence was demolished after the coup.) The statue roughly marks the spot where Juan Perón had planned to build a colossal monument to himself, Evita and a symbolic worker, or Descamisado.
Contact SoloMate Travel today to inquire about our fascinating singles trip to sensuous Argentina. We also invite you to visit our Trips page to learn all about our other fabulous vacations for singles. Call 1‑855‑290‑7050 (toll free) without delay.
A few years ago, an amazing initiative was started in Buenos Aires, and we think it deserves our attention. We are referring to gratiferias—free fairs.
These are markets where no money is exchanged. What a perfect idea! You can get rid of items you no longer want, use or have room for, and obtain things you are looking for.
Items traded, or simply given away, include shoes, clothing, tools, books, furniture, plants, and even haircuts. There is one condition though: items must be clean and in working order.
Santiago, Madrid, Medellin, Montevideo and Buenos Aires all have designated dates and locations for their gratiferias, and happen to be just a few of SoloMate’s favorite destinations.
In Buenos Aires, a destination SoloMate Travel will be visiting in November 2012, the first gratiferia was organized two years ago by Ariel Rodriguez Bosio, an environmental technician. For this native of Buenos Aires, these fairs are all about “finding solutions for the world in which we live.” His website promotes his vision for a world without money, and his novel idea of a living economy system. He explains that “what was excess gets used again, and nothing gets thrown away. Sharing means less pollution.
These fairs are not restricted by social barriers; they can be held in the elegant Recoleta neighborhood or in a working class district.
Solo and single travelers who join SoloMate Travel on a fabulous vacation for singles to Buenos Aires in November will enjoy four-star accommodations in the Recoleta district. Why not embark on a singles adventure to Argentina, and experience a gratiferia? Who knows what you’ll walk away with? Andrea, your singles tour group Travel Director, may even trade in her travel mug for a real Yerba Mate drinking cup.
Call a SoloMate Travel Expert now toll free at 1-855-290-7050 to enquire about our fantastic singles trip to Argentina, or visit our website at http://www.solomatetravel.com.
Though the exact origins of tango — both the dance and the word itself — are unclear, the generally accepted theory is that in the mid-1800s, African slaves were brought to Argentina and began to influence the local culture.
During the late 1800s and early 1900s, Argentina underwent a massive wave of immigration. Most immigrants were then single men, who were typically poor and desperate. Therefore, at the time, tango was considered a dance from the poor “barrios” (neighborhoods).
Eventually though, everyone found out about tango and, by the beginning of the twentieth century, both the dance and popular music had firmly established themselves in Buenos Aires, the city of its birth. It soon spread to provincial towns of Argentina and across the River Plate to Montevideo, the capital of Uruguay. Today, the avenues and boulevards of Buenos Aires are packed with “milongas”, essentially any place or event where people gather to dance tango.
In fact, tango has become so wide-spread throughout the world that, in 2009, the U.N. declared this dance tradition of Argentina and Uruguay a world cultural treasure, adding its sultry dance steps and melancholy song lyrics to UNESCO’s heritage list.
Every night, professional tango dancers blend in with the masses, who gather in community centers, dance halls and recreational facilities across Buenos Aires, to enjoy one of multiple “milongas” or “prácticas” taking place. These gatherings are the best way for single travelers on a solo adventure to Argentina to experience this largely improvised and very sensual dance that shares little with the ballroom or show tango that most of us have seen on television.
Argentine tango is danced in an embrace that can vary from very open, in which leader and follower connect at arms length, to very closed, in which the connection is chest-to-chest, or anywhere in between.
Argentine tango is danced counterclockwise around the outside of the dance floor, and is essentially walking with a partner and the music. A good dancer is one who transmits a feeling of the music to the partner, leading them effectively throughout the dance. Also, dancers generally keep their feet close to the floor as they walk, the ankles and knees brushing as one leg passes the other.
Since Argentine tango is almost entirely improvisational, there needs to be clear communication between partners. Even when dancing in a very open embrace, Argentine tango dancers do not hold their upper bodies arched away from each other; each partner is over their own axis. Whether open or closed, a tango embrace is not rigid, but relaxed, like a hug.
Join SoloMate Travel on our fun-filled singles vacation to Argentina. Contact one of our Single Travel Experts today at 1-855-290-7050 or visit our Trips page.
Part 2 – Off to Cooking School and Capri
Today, our singles travel group splits up to enjoy a day of leisure. Some of us opt for a hike up the hills of the Sorrentine peninsula, where we are treated to some of the most superb landscapes I have ever seen.
We begin our trek, map in hand, by walking up a cobblestone street, toward Capo di Ponte. We crisscross lemon groves and enchanting villas as we continue our ascent. Though our map is perfectly detailed, we quickly realize that the trail markings are not quite as perfect. We’re not worried though because the weather and scenery are gorgeous, and the locals we meet along the way are all too happy to guide us. We reach Massa Lubrense, a charming little town completely devoid of the usual tourist trappings. This revelation alone makes the 2.5 hour hike worth the effort. However, we elect to return to Sorrento aboard a public bus.
At the end of a glorious day, we have our usual singles pow-wow in the hotel lounge. We share the day’s adventures, and reveal a treasure trove of things to do, see and mostly eat. It’s only day three of our singles tour of Italy, and we’re all blown away by the food. This is why we’re so excited about going to cooking school tomorrow.
I have never had so much fun in a kitchen. We are at the Sorrento Cooking School and our chefs, Mina and Monika, and our interpreter, really know their stuff. The highlight of the experience is – you guessed it – the tasting. We have prepared the best Capri-style ravioli and sea bass I have ever had the luxury of savoring. Some of my single travel companions find that the Neapolitan piezzette or tiramisu is the highlight for them.
I not only perfected my culinary skills today, but I have developed a true appreciation for fine Neapolitan cuisine.
From Sant’Agnello, our singles travel group returns to Sorrento along a coastal back road. Of course, we frequently stop to take beautiful pictures.
We’re off to Capri tomorrow.
After a 20 minute jet boat ride, we are in Capri. We take the funicular to reach the very chic main square. We then tour the island aboard an open air taxi, which takes us to Anacapri. We continue our ascent to the peak of Mt. Solaro, 1,960 feet above sea level, by chair lift, where the panoramic view is absolutely astounding. Even those members of our singles tour group who are fearful of heights readily admit that the 12 minute ride up is well worth it.
Daniel, our guide, ensures we enjoy a fabulous lunch of local food, including fish, at a wonderful trattoria in the village of Marina Piccola.
Back in Capri, we admire the Giardini di Augusto public garden. Some of us stroll down the Via Krupp, which is actually a staircase cut into the rock, that winds its way down to the sea. We’ve all seen the path in pictures or films, but one must be there to truly appreciate it.
We end the day people watching and window shopping in the main piazzetta, before boarding a jet boat back to Sorrento.
With every day turning out to be more exciting than the last, our entire singles travel group is looking forward to a private tour of Pompeii and Vesuvius tomorrow.